Design and basic principle of the fabricated FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Abdominal based immunosensor Plan 1 elucidates the mechanism of sensing and fabrication of the developed FTO immunosensor integrated with AuNPs and SARS-CoV-2Abdominal. and can be used as an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool for the quick, specific and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Ag traces in medical samples. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: em SARS-CoV-2 /em , em Immunosensor /em Daptomycin , em Platinum nanoparticles /em , em Spike antigen /em , em Voltammetry /em Graphical abstract Electrochemical immunosensor revised with AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab for detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antigen. Open in a separate window 1.?Intro SARS-CoV-2 is a single positive strand RNA disease consisting of four structural proteins including spike, envelope, matrix and nucleocapsid proteins and is responsible for respiratory tract illness . In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia was observed in Wuhan, China and the causative pathogen was identified as a new type of coronavirus [, , , , ] and named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) from the World Health Corporation (WHO). For early analysis, chest Rabbit polyclonal to POLR2A computed tomography (CT) [, , , ] was used whereas in the analytical stage, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [, , , ] remains the standard research test for the etiologic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 [15,16]. However, since both these standard techniques are time consuming, laborious processes and may sometimes give false bad results due to low titre value, rapid mass screening is not possible which is the need of the hour to manage the spread of the virus, especially from non-symptomatic patients. In order to overcome the above disadvantages of standard methods, numerous serological assay and biosensor  centered detection methods possess gained study interest which include Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) , Lateral Circulation Assays (LFA) , Field Effect Transistors (FET) , etc. Recently, integrated Internet of Items (IOT) and Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) centered techniques are becoming launched as supplemental tools for rapid analysis [, , , ]. However, this area still needs a lot of study as the detectors require higher level of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Biosensors are sensitive, specific, stable, easy to use, require less sample size, time, portable and most importantly can be customised to detect the prospective analyte of interest. Immunosensors can be used to detect toxins , narcotic medicines [, , , ], viruses [, , ] by use of different bioreceptors such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) [33,34], enzymes [35,36], peptides , aptamers , antibody [39,40]. Electrochemical biosensors are considered as a reliable tool for infectious disease detection as they remain unaffected by sample absorbance or turbidity . In order to increase the level of sensitivity of electrochemical biosensors, nanomaterials are often made use of as transmission amplifiers such as graphene and AuNPs [42,43]. The electrical conductive properties of AuNPs have been extensively analyzed which Daptomycin enables them to improve the electronic transmission performance of detectors upon incorporation [, , ]. Moreover, since the synthesis of AuNPs is an easy one-step process Daptomycin and biocompatible for simple antibody physisorption conjugation, we have selected it as the transmission amplification component with this study work. In this study, we have fabricated FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab electrode for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Ag. The polyclonal SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Ab were raised in house and evaluated for its purity, and affinity for specific Ag by immunoassays. Here, FTO electrodes have been desired over indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, high tolerance towards physical abrasions and cost performance . Nanotechnology offers played numerous tasks in combating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic  and in this study work, AuNPs were selected as the transmission amplifiers because of the high conductivity, biocompatibility, stability, and ease of synthesis . AuNPs were drop casted onto the FTO electrode and SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Ab was immobilised to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Ag. All immobilization methods and optimisation.