Second, it will be important to test samples collected from patients with different SLE disease activity index scores to disease activity scores because early detection of developing disease is an important clinical goal (33). SLE2018Val002, SLE2018Val006, and SLE2018Val008) were discovered with high diagnostic power to differentiate SLE patients from healthy controls. Among them, two peptides, SLE2018Val001 and SLE2018Val002, were confirmed between SLE with other autoimmune patients. The procedure we established could be easily adopted for the identification of autoantibodies as biomarkers for many other diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)1 is usually a chronic, complex autoimmune disorder characterized by the production of autoantibodies and heterogeneous clinical presentation (1). The incidence rate of SLE is usually 2C7/10,000 (2). It primarily affects women of childbearing age with a female-to-male ratio of 9:1 (3). The clinical manifestations of SLE are diverse, including arthritis, rashes, nephritis, and serositis, which lead to reduced physical function, high morbidity, impaired quality of life, and shortened life span (4). Furthermore, both serological and immunological indicators of the disease are highly variable. Owing to its complexity and heterogeneity regarding its etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation, GM 6001 SLE remains one of the greatest challenges for physicians to diagnose. Loss of immune tolerance leading to immune dysregulation and excess production of autoantibodies causes the clinical manifestation of SLE. Autoantibodies are the hallmarks of SLE. More than 180 autoantibodies have been reported to be related to lupus (5). Autoantibodies have long been applied as biomarkers for the diagnosis of SLE. The most commonly used biomarker is usually anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), which has high sensitivity for the diagnosis of SLE, but it is not specific because it can be observed in a variety of other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (6). Other autoantibodies such as anti-double stranded DNA or anti-Smith (Sm) are Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1 more specific for SLE but exist in only a fraction of lupus patients (7). Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel highly sensitive and specific SLE biomarkers that can be applied for the diagnosis of SLE. A good SLE biomarker should be able to accurately differentiate SLE from other autoimmune diseases, and the diagnosis process should also be reliable, cost effective, and have no adverse effects around the patients. In 2013, using a library of synthetic autoantigen surrogates, Quan identified an SLE marker with a specificity of 97.5% a sensitivity of 70% (8). In addition to chemically synthesized peptoids (9), proteins (10) and polypeptides (11) are also available as candidates for biomarkers. Several approaches have been attempted to discover specific antibodies associated with autoimmune diseases. Because the content of protein in serum is usually heterogeneous and the abundance of autoantibodies tends to be low, GM 6001 it is difficult to solve the problem of significant differences in autoantibody levels in different samples by mass spectrometry. To overcome the drawbacks of conventional mass spectrometry methods, GM 6001 Hecker analyzed IgG autoantibody reactivity in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from multiple sclerosis patients with a high-density peptide microarray (12). Zhu used an autoantigen microarray for high-throughput autoantibody profiling in SLE (13). However, due to the high cost of the array and library, the microarray-based strategy for serum biomarker discovery has not been widely applied. Furthermore, most of the approaches have focused on a panel of antigens known or predicted to be important for the disease (14C16). Alternatively, phage display peptide libraries could also serve as only a handful potential source of antigens for autoantibody-based serum biomarker discovery. Larman constructed a T7-peptipe library containing the complete human proteome for autoantigen discovery. The binding peptides were then decoded by deep sequencing, and this technology.
Our case was analyzed in this series, and em /em -light chains were found in the macrophage intracellular crystals by LC-MS/MS (Rodriguez et al
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